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The collapse of the Soviet Union led to the formation of five newly established republic in Central Asia. This region has been testifier several regional and trans-regional countries in their geographic area because of its geopolitical circumstances. Russia, China, Saudi Arabia are regional countries and the United States of America is as a trans-regional countries in this region Since independence of country of Central Asia that because of the influence of Russia and the United States of America the in this area, are more important than others. However, this has been effective political and economic independence of the Central Asian countries.
It is noteworthy that the countries of Central Asia because of geographic location and lack of access to sea, are in a closed position. For this reason, countries in this region are related to their geographic neighbors. Islamic Republic of Iran is important for this country due to as complementary geographic. The presence and role of regional and trans-regional countries, such as Russia, the United States of America in Central Asia, has provided certain conditions for this region Cause of its geopolitical important role in the geopolitics of region as a strategic area in the vicinity of our country.
Therefore this thesis is a descriptive – analytical study and using data collection and analysis of them, study geo politic of region in Central Asia. Accordingly, we have tried to answer these questions: 1. what could it be Central Asian geopolitical factors affecting in United States and Russia Presence? 2. Presence in Central Asia, Russia and the United States of America has what effects on the security of the Islamic Republic? For each of these questions, a hypothesis has been proposed. That two are as follows: First hypothesis: Economic and regional characteristics, including factors in the interests of the United States and Russia in Central Asia. Second hypothesis: the United States of America and Russia presence in Central Asia, reduce transit strategy and strategic challenges of cross-border attacks against Iran.
Keywords: geopolitics, Central Asia, energy resources, United States of America, Russia, Islamic Republic of Iran.